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Author Topic: Mechanisms of Prejudice: Hidden and Not Hidden  (Read 56 times)

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AGelbert

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Mechanisms of Prejudice: Hidden and Not Hidden
« on: May 26, 2022, 12:55:21 pm »

May 26, 2022 By Valley News

Store manager accuses Upper Valley grocery co-op of racial discrimination

SNIPPET:

The woman put on her mask, but shortly thereafter, Hall was alerted that she had pulled it down below her nose while still in store. Hall pointed out to the woman that masks were needed during the COVID-19 pandemic for the safety of customers and employees.

Doren was trying to tell her if she did not wear her mask properly that she would have to leave the store,” a Co-op employee who witnessed the incident later recalled. “👿 She proceeded to argue with him, then she took down her mask, spit in his face and walked out.”

An in-store video camera captured the encounter.

After identifying the woman — she was a regular shopper — Hall wanted her banned from the store. Working with Lebanon police, the Co-op sent her a “no trespass” letter.

But a few days later, after an exchange of emails with the woman’s husband, Co-op General Manager Paul Guidone lifted the ban.

Full article:
https://vtdigger.org/2022/05/25/store-manager-accuses-upper-valley-grocery-co-op-of-racial-discrimination/
« Last Edit: May 26, 2022, 01:01:07 pm by AGelbert »
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

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AGelbert

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Tuesday, September 20, 2022

The 👿🎩 Supreme Court Is Gutting the Regulatory State. Let's Look at Our Other Options

SNIPPET:

Whither Social Democracy?

Social democracy was initially founded on the idea that society could transition from capitalism to socialism peacefully via democratic political institutions. But in its modern incarnation, the term more often refers to a political and economic system based on the idea that the excesses and injustices of capitalism can be ameliorated primarily through state regulation of private enterprise, rather than large-order shifts in the ownership of those enterprises. As the German revisionist Marxist Eduard Bernstein, often considered the father of social democracy, once put it, socialization ​“can also take place if the general public intervenes ever more strongly in support of economic life through laws and ordinances,” via, for instance, minimum-wage legislation, occupational safety standards, price controls and other regulations. This regulatory approach is, then, usually combined with both a strong social safety net supported by tax-and-spend policies and the extension of political and social rights to traditionally marginalized groups.

Following World War II, social democrats (in either name or deed) came to power in many countries around the world, especially those in Europe that had been economically and socially devastated by the war. With the economic and business elite in many of those countries temporarily discredited by their associations and infatuations with fascism, some of these countries were able to build strong welfare states characterized by empowered trade unions, reductions in economic inequality, and marked improvements in health and living standards. In the United States, a weaker version of social democracy took hold through the federal government’s robust response to the Great Depression (the New Deal) and the centralizing forces of war mobilization.

While some significant ownership shifts did occur, especially in the early days of the New Deal, the U.S. variant of social democracy was always primarily regulatory in nature, with famous examples being financial laws such as the Glass-Steagall Act (which limited the activities of private banks), environmental laws (which restrict pollution and extraction), food, drug and medical device quality laws, labor laws, and so on. Moreover, actual implementation and enforcement of these laws was often delegated to regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency, giving rise to the term the ​“regulatory state.” Like in Europe, this approach initially found some success. By the late-1970s, income and wealth inequality had hit historic lows, poverty was falling, rivers and the air were being cleaned up, labor unions were still comparatively strong, living standards had risen, and life expectancy had improved dramatically.

However, since its inception, 👿🎩 business elites and their 🐘 political allies have chafed against this regulatory approach to moderating capitalism (while, paradoxically, often using it to their own material benefit). Commenting on the opposition he faced, Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) once famously stated ​“we had to struggle with the old enemies of peace — business and financial monopoly, speculation, reckless banking, class antagonism, sectionalism, war profiteering… Never before in all our history have these forces been so united against one candidate as they stand today. They are unanimous in their hate for me — and I welcome their hatred.” Like today, these business interests attempted to thwart the implementation of FDR’s social democratic programs through the Supreme Court — but, ultimately, he was able to face them down through, for instance, threatening to ​“pack” the Court.

However, the real counterattack against the regulatory state began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Capitalizing on the social and economic upheavals of the time, the business community and economic elite, along with their ​“free market” allies in academia, sprang into action. In 1971, just a few months before he was nominated to serve on the Supreme Court, 😈 Lewis F. Powell Jr. — a corporate lawyer who sat on the board of the tobacco company Philip Morris — wrote a letter to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce castigating the business community for its supposed inattention to (and complicity in) the ​“attack on the American free enterprise system.”

The 😈 business elite responded, and soon vast sums of money began flowing to an array of new and existing 🦀🐘🦕🦖🐍🦍🐉🐀 right-wing organizations — including the American Enterprise Institute (founded in 1938), the Reason Foundation (founded 1968), the Heritage Foundation (founded in 1973), the Cato Institute (founded in 1977), the Manhattan Institute (founded in 1977), the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC; founded in 1973), and the Federalist Society (founded 1982). The effort was so successful that by Ronald Reagan’s first term, these organizations provided more than half of his high-level presidential appointments.

Under the influence and direction of these organizations and their acolytes, deregulation of the U.S. economy kicked into high gear, championed by both Republicans and Democrats alike. This includes high-profile legislation like, for instance, the 😈🎩 1999 law which essentially repealed the Glass-Steagall Act. However, more insidiously, it also includes a full-blown assault on the agencies tasked with implementing and monitoring regulatory rules. Regulatory agencies are regularly swamped with industry lawsuits and lobbying, vilified by corporate-funded propaganda campaigns, purposefully saddled with leaders who are hostile to their mission (e.g. Rick Perry’s being appointed Secretary of Energy in 2017, an agency he called to be eliminated a few years earlier), sapped of talent by the private sector and, most recently, undercut by the 👿🎩 Supreme Court.

Full article:
https://ongoingclassstruggle.blogspot.com/2022/09/the-supreme-court-is-gutting-regulatory.html

AGelbert COMMENTS:

The Supreme Court has been a tool of 👿🎩 Oligarchs from the start. The Supreme Court was DESIGNED to be the lackey of the Oligarchs (see snippet below), so they will ALWAYS obstruct any move to real democracy at the workplace, or anywhere else, in the USA, PERIOD. 😠

SNIPPETS:
Luther Martin: Representative for Maryland and dissenting Anti-Federalist. Was shocked at the attempt by the elite to overthrow the existing government in secret in 1787, and swore to tell the people what Washington, Madison and Hamilton were up to. ... ...

He said we were going to lose our freedom under the reintroduction of a hated standing army and that we would suffer under the despotism of a Supreme Court with no citizen jury.
Source: the Actual Anti-Federalist writings...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Complete_Anti-Federalist

Adam G. Yoksas 
It would be interesting to look at examples from the states to show how public ownership could work. Unlike the Federal government, states have a lot of autonomy to enact policies for themselves that work for them, policies that can, in turn, serve as models for how Federal reform could work.

I can think of a few experiments off the top of my head. The Green Bay Packers is a publicly owned football team, an anomaly in a culture that is defined by a kind of neofeudal impresario model of dynastic ownership. I think a case can be made that this dynastic ownership model no longer serves the public, as these dynasties think nothing about extorting the public to pay for ever more lavish stadiums and infrastructure, with the threat that they will pack up and leave.

Then there is the Alaskan oil and gas dividend, where a portion of the revenue gained by fossil fuel extraction is paid to the citizens of Alaska as a consideration for the use of the Alaskan territory for such purposes.

In many locales--even today--you have publicly owned liquor stores; you simply cannot buy alcohol at a supermarket or a private retail enterprise. How do those work? And I think, more importantly, what is the purpose behind this arrangement? Because it isn't so much aimed at equitable distribution. It's an instrument of control.

Now booze is important to many. But it is far from essential. The greatest fear I think you'll 😈 encounter when proposing public ownership of something like utilities is how that arrangement would be used. For many 😈🎩😉 fear that if something like electricity or heating fuel would become a publicly owned, state owned endeavor, that endeavor would be used as a cudgel against political enemies, or as a means to push behavior modification on a recalcitrant population.

AGelbert > Adam G. Yoksas
Your post leaves out a rather large amount of evidence in U.S. history, where that very Mens rea type behavior by States, that you are, as an alleged "consequence" of more democratic workplaces (i.e. Coops), presently concerned with, took place for nearly a century (in some States, it is STILL going on!).

However, that Court Approved Unjust Abuse had NOTHING to do with Coops, and EVERYTHING to do with Mens rea serial, rampant, continual pecuniary exploitation of certain U.S. Citizens under the color of Law.

Speaking of "using a cudgel against" political (or any other kind of "perceived") enemies or as a means to push behavior modification on a "recalcitrant" population, the States (Southern AND Northern) engaged in exactly THAT after the Civil War (i.e. after African-Americans were, according U.S. LAW, FREE U.S. citizens, entitled to all the Rights inherent to U.S. citizenship) while the Supreme Court looked the other way or voiced approval with legalese code speech.

There were MANY abuses but the Land Grant College abuse by the States was what I wish to bring to your attention. Millions of dollars (in 19th and early 20th century dollars!), were legally coerced in the form of "education" taxes from African-American U.S. Citizens under the guise of "education for all" (i.e. U.S. Law after the Civil War). ALL that money went to WHITE Land Grant colleges and WHITE public schools, and not a PENNY to traditionally BLACK Colleges OR Black public schools. Talk about ABUSE! These Black citizens, among the poorest people in the USA, were being cynically DEFRAUDED.

Details of that and much more (Near the end in the Panel Discussion) too many people do not want to talk about: 😞

1619 and the Making of America
« Last Edit: September 24, 2022, 05:11:41 pm by AGelbert »
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

AGelbert

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Comments UPDATE on previous Post on this Topic Thread
« Reply #2 on: September 25, 2022, 01:54:16 pm »
Collectivist Action >AGelbert
Wow, AGelbert, we're apparently on the same page with this.

Good comment & video.

I saw your comment after I wrote mine.

AGelbert > Collectivist Action
I say in all seriousness that am fortunate to be thinking along the same Hunger and Thirst for Justice lines as you. If more people were as prudent and principled as you, human society would not be in such a sorry state of greed based corruption. God Bless you, bro.



Collectivist Action >Yoksas
You're late, Yoksas.
Behavior modification already exist.
The ruling capitalists have been 'modifying' our behavior since they codified and nationalized white supremacy, through private property laws and public policies since the state was established.
Think: Naturalization and Jim Crow laws, and commercial media.etc.

Nevertheless, the OPed raises some very provocative ideas about how we could transition away from the catastrophic rule of capital, by drawing on a rich, past and present tradition of cooperative economics and the best of global social democratic experiments.*

Of course, many of the reactionaries I see you, mostly, backslapping in cyberspace, and others, on and offline, imo, will be CONSCIOUSLY opposing most of the above proposals, mainly because, afaics, they are arch enemies of social equality and democracy, which expanding public ownership would advance.

Rightwingers are generally diametrically opposed to both of those things (with a LONG & BLOODY history to boot!), , esp., if they threaten their private property. . .and requires paying more taxes.

AGelbert > Collectivist Action
Well said. In addition to my comment (which you have already read and approved), I want to add that, when Yoksas wrote that hyperbole FUD about liquor licenses being a State sponsored "instrument of control", I was flabbergasted at the selective blindness exhibited 🤦‍♂️. I wanted to direct this at Yoksas (but tried to do the same thing with words instead):

The GOAL of EVERY Capitalist is to 🦍 "corner" (SEE: MONOPOLY) the market for whatever good or service they profit from, PERIOD. If a MONOPOLY on a good or a service (or BOTH) isn't an 📢 INSTRUMENT OF CONTROL, I don't know what is.

Apparently, Yoksas and fellow Capitalists, blinders thoroughly fixed about their heads with 🎩 Capitalist crazy glue, only see a "threat" when the government has a monopoly, but never when a greeball Capitalist 🦍 has it without ANY oversight whatsoever by we-the-people. Yeah, Capitalists just want to be left alone to do their "economy improving" (SEE: Orwell) thing with "Holy St. Adam Smith's 😇" (SEE: MORE Orwell) invisible hand "helping" (SEE: Orwell on STEROIDS!) society...

V4V posted a graphic on hypocrisy the other day. Hey V4V, if you read this, Yoksas's comment is good place to put it.
https://ongoingclassstruggle.blogspot.com/2022/09/the-supreme-court-is-gutting-regulatory.html#more
« Last Edit: September 25, 2022, 01:57:07 pm by AGelbert »
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

AGelbert

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Collectivist Action > AGelbert
Worth repeating:
"Apparently, Yoksas and fellow Capitalists, blinders thoroughly fixed about their heads with 🎩 Capitalist crazy glue, only see a "threat" when the government has a monopoly, but never when a greeball Capitalist 🦍 has it without ANY oversight whatsoever by we-the-people."


AGelbert > Collectivist Action
Yup. I ran into a some cogent quotes yesterday that say a great deal while saying very little. I think they are worth passing along. One is an old quote you are, no doubt, familiar with; the others are hard truths most people do not take into consideration when pondering the now-upon-us-and-getting-worse-every-month Existential THREAT of Catastrophic Climate Change:

“Not everything that is faced can be changed; but nothing can be changed until it is faced.” James Baldwin ✨

"Advertising and Marketing are the polite terms in our society for Propaganda."

"Affluent people tend to know the least about how to get by on less."

SOURCE: Truths We Can’t Bear Alone: Facing an ‘Inconvenient ApocalypseSeptember 16, 2022 Wes Jackson ✨ president emeritus of The Land Institute. and Robert Jensen ✨ emeritus professor at the University of Texas at Austin.
« Last Edit: September 25, 2022, 03:05:11 pm by AGelbert »
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

AGelbert

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Re: Mechanisms of Prejudice: Hidden and Not Hidden
« Reply #4 on: October 03, 2022, 01:26:33 pm »
Herero genocide

by Marc Ambler

Like most visitors to Namibia,1 one of the memorable pictures I carried away was of the noble-looking Herero people.  Their women wear colourful, voluminous Victorian-style dresses and hats (see p. 55), and the men wear uniforms on ceremonial occasions.  How terribly sad it was to learn that 100 years ago, their great-grandparents had been the victims of the first genocide of the 20th century.

During the colonial land-grab of African countries by European nations after the 1884–85 Berlin Conference,2 Germany annexed Namibia, then known as South-West Africa.  German settlers quickly ran roughshod over the historical rights and claims of the Herero tribal inhabitants, and for the next 20 years plundered their lands, houses and livestock. 

Of this period, the Governor, Theodor Leutwein, wrote that the German settlers had an ‘inborn feeling of belonging to a superior race’.3  Thus racism was rife.  The Herero were regularly referred to as ‘baboons’; the men were commonly beaten to death for minor infringements, and the women were made sex slaves by the soldiers and settlers.


Uprising


Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha

Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha’s beliefs of racial superiority led him to contemptuously state: ‘I wipe out rebellious tribes with streams of blood and streams of money. Only following this cleansing can something new emerge’. And ‘… I find it appropriate that the [Herero] nation perishes instead of infecting our soldiers’.

In these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that an uprising occurred.  On 12 January 1904, fighting broke out between Herero tribesmen and the settlers, in the town of Okahandja, where there was a German fort.

The response of the Berlin government to this insurrection by a colonized people who had dared to resist the might of the German nation was fast and ruthless.  Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched 14,000 troops to the region under the command of Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha.  Von Trotha was renowned for the ruthless efficiency with which he had helped to suppress the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, and to quash resistance to his nation’s occupation of German East Africa (today’s Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania).

Von Trotha’s written goal was: ‘I believe that the [Herero] nation as such should be exterminated.’4  He stated: ‘The exercise of violence and crass terrorism and even with gruesomeness was and is my policy.  I destroy the African tribes with streams of blood and streams of money.  Only following this cleansing can something new emerge, which will remain.’5

That the German settlers and a high-ranking officer like General von Trotha would hold to these ‘superior race’, ‘survival-of-the-fittest-through-“cleansing”-of-the-weakest’ views is hardly surprising.  Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (which is subtitled By Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) had been translated into German in 1875, and his evolutionary theories had for decades been avidly promoted to all and sundry by the popular books and theatrical presentations of Ernst Haeckel.6  The German nation had also been subjected for many years to the ‘God-is-dead’ atheism of Nietzsche.7


This, too, was a consequence of Darwin­ian thought. Nietzsche believed that Dar­win­ian evolution would eventually produce the Übermensch, ‘a superman whose distance from the ordinary man was greater than the distance between man and ape’.8  Then a ‘super-race’ of such beings would impose its will on the weak and the worthless. 

Decades later, Hitler would proclaim the same Darwinist superiority views to justify his own subjugation of the ‘lesser’ peoples of Europe.9

In the light of this attitude of racial superiority, it is interesting to compare probably the two most famous documents to come out of the Herero war.  In his infamous Vernichtungsbefehl (annihilation order), von Trotha stated: ‘[E]very Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot.  I will no longer accept women and children, I will drive them back to their people or I will let them be shot at.’10

The response of the ‘lesser’ people

In contrast, a letter of Herero chief Samuel Maharero to his people shortly after the outbreak of war11 states that Englishmen, Boers, missionaries and people of other tribes were not to be harmed.12  History has shown that both instructions were diligently carried out. :emthup:

In a decisive battle at Hamakari, near Waterberg, on 11 August 1904, von Trotha’s troops surrounded the Herero tribespeople on three sides and brutally defeated them.  In a cynical ploy, he left open only the way into the Omaheke area of the Kalahari Desert. The battle plan was that those who escaped the German bullets should die of thirst.  Waterholes for 150 miles (240 km) around the desert were either patrolled or poisoned, and those Herero who came crawling out of the Omaheke, desperate for water, were bayoneted. This left the Herero ‘with but one option: to cross the desert into Botswana [then called Bechuanaland], in reality a march to death.  This, indeed, is how the majority of the Herero perished.’13

Due to missionary pressure and a growing shortage of labour in the colony, von Trotha’s extermination cam­paign was eventually stopped by Berlin, and the surviving Herero people were put into concentration camps.


‘Put to slave labor, overworked, hungry, and exposed to diseases such as typhoid and smallpox, more Herero men perished in these camps.  Herero women, meanwhile, were turned into sex slaves.’14 

The result of this policy was that from 1904 to 1908 the Herero were reduced ‘from a tribe of 80,000 persons to 15,000 starving refugees.’15 

Following the war, all Herero persons over the age of seven were forced to wear a metal disc around their necks with their registration number, designating them as free labour. This was an ominous foretaste of the Jewish Holocaust star years later, when Hitler similarly enslaved those he considered to be members of inferior races.

Genocide and ‘race branding’

There are powerful links between the Herero genocide, the Holocaust 40 years later, and the Rwandan genocide of the 1990s.16


1.Francis Galton, the anti-Christian cousin of Charles Darwin, visited South-West Africa in the early 1850s. He went on to develop his theory of eugenics, a term he coined in 1883. This pseudo-science helped promote the racial superiority views which played such a major role in the fate of the Herero people years later.


Herr Dok­tor Eugen Fischer hard at "evolutionary studies" work!

2.Making his rounds of the Herero concentration camps was Herr Dok­tor Eugen Fischer. It was here that Fischer did his first ‘medical’ experiments on race, genetics and eugenics, using as his guinea pigs both Herero full-bloods and the mulatto offspring of Herero women and German men. Under his supervision, the preserved bodies and severed heads of Herero who had been hanged were sent to Germany for dissection.4

Anything for the advancement of EVOLUTIONARY science, eh?
 
Fischer went on to become the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics.  He co-authored the book The Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene,17 which became the standard textbook in Germany on this subject.  Hitler cited it in his Mein Kampf [My Struggle] , which became the basis for the destruction of millions of people in his own pursuit of ‘racial purity’.

Hitler appointed Fischer as rector of the University of Berlin in 1933, where he taught medicine to Nazi doctors. Fischer is sometimes referred to as the father of modern genetics. One of his prominent pupils was Josef Mengele, the so-called ‘Angel of Death’, who went on to repeat his teacher’s cruel experiments on Jewish children, and directed the operation of the gas chambers at Auschwitz.


http://creation.com/herero-genocide




Agelbert NOTE: Please observe the similarity in the above photograph with the one taken around 1908. That is, NAZI concentration camp victims in exactly the same circumstances as the Herero victims of "evolutionary" studies (1904-1908) in the (by the 1940s) PRACTICED Concentration Camp MEDICAL Modus Operandi  that Fischer HANDED OFF TO MENGELE.    Thank these hapless Jews for the Minimum Recommended Daily Allowances of Vitamins and Minerals. WE recovered them from the STUDIES in the Concentration Camps by the NAZIs!   

To Darwinian Worshipers, we just need to apply EVOLUTION more "correctly" (I.E. Take healthy food AWAY, give processed crap food and Sterilize the "useless eaters" with pollution so no more "useless eaters" get a chance to be born!). TRUE BELIEVERS in "Survival of the Apex Predators" smile at the those clever Germans who got the Missionaries to make the Hereros believe in "Pie in the Sky"  ;) so they would not fight back! So for Darwinists, Christian Missionaries might help CLEANSE Homo SAP of the lesser SAPS! LOL!

Stupid is as EVIL and STUPID does. Have a nice evolutionary day.
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

AGelbert

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Human Zoos: America’s Forgotten History of Scientific Racism
« Reply #5 on: October 04, 2022, 02:25:38 pm »
Human Zoos: America’s Forgotten History of Scientific Racism


At the Heart of Theistic Evolution, an Inescapable Contradiction


Mike Keas: Unbelievable (Playlist)


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So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

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News and views from the National Community Reinvestment Coalition. Find more at ncrc.org.

Just News for October 7, 2022

Why 🎩 Banks Are Suing For The Right To 😖 Discriminate – And Why They’re Wrong

SNIPPETS:

Powerful corporations are mounting an audacious new attack on the federal government’s work to protect Americans from discrimination. They have neither logic, nor law, nor popular opinion on their side. ... ...

We all should be very concerned about both the 😈 intended and unintended consequences of this lawsuit. If it is successful it would be a precedent for questioning the funding streams supporting other government agencies. [Read more 👈]
« Last Edit: October 07, 2022, 03:15:25 pm by AGelbert »
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

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History ABSENT from American "History" textbooks
« Reply #7 on: December 15, 2022, 08:33:22 pm »
VIDEO:

Richard Wright’sLegacy of Exposing Racial Violence Honored on Anniversary of Elaine Massacre in Arkansas
https://www.democracynow.org/2022/10/4/richard_wright_s_legacy_of_exposing

Transcript This is a rush transcript. Copy may not be in its final form.
AMY GOODMAN: This is Democracy Now!, democracynow.org, The War and Peace Report. I’m Amy Goodman, as we turn to Part 2 of our interview about this 103rd anniversary of the Elaine massacre, commemorated this past weekend in Arkansas.

Before the massacre, Elaine was home to Richard Wright, who became one of the most famous Black writers in United States history. He was known for his acclaimed novel Native Son and his memoir, Black Boy, in which he describes how his uncle Silas Hoskins was lynched in 1916 near Elaine by white people who wanted his business. Richard Wright was 9 years old when he and his family were forced to flee. He wrote, quote, “There was only silence, quiet weeping, whispers and fears. Uncle Hoskins had simply been plucked from our midst and we, figuratively, had fallen on our faces to avoid looking into that white-hot face of terror that we knew loomed somewhere above us. This was as close as white terror had ever come to me and my mind reeled. Why had we not fought back, I asked my mother, and the fear that was in her made her slap me into silence.” Richard Wright was describing a true story.

Three years later, on September 30th, 1919, a white man was shot and killed near Elaine when guards stopped a group of white men from breaking into a meeting of Black sharecroppers with the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America to demand fair pay for their crops. Mobs of white people responded in Elaine, Arkansas, with three days of anti-Black racist violence, backed by hundreds of U.S. soldiers. Historians estimate hundreds of Black people were killed, much of their land stolen. The anti-lynching journalist Ida B. Wells investigated the 1919 Elaine massacre and wrote, quote, “Negroes were in a fair way to become independent and it was not to the interest of white landowners to let them do so.”

For more, we continue with Julia Wright, the daughter of the literary giant Richard Wright, and she is in Portugal. We’re also joined by Paul Ortiz ✨, professor of history and director of the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at University of Florida, Gainesville. They were both part of symposium this weekend hosted by the Elaine Legacy Center and the Richard Wright Civil Rights Center. Professor Paul Ortiz is also author of the book, An African American and Latinx History of the United States.

We welcome you both to Democracy Now! Professor Ortiz, let’s begin with you, because, I mean, you’ve written this African American and Latinx History of the United States, so much of which is not included in the standard history books that children in the United States grow up with. I mean, the Elaine massacre, and the commemoration this weekend, hardly got paid attention to. Can you talk about why it’s so important to remember something that happened in 1919?

PAUL ORTIZ: Amy, it’s so important for a number of reasons. You mention, you know, Latinx history. And this summer I was in the National Archives doing research. The same situation that faced African American farmers, and whether they were landowners or sharecroppers, faced Mexican and Puerto Rican farmers and sharecroppers in the Southwest. The same forces of state violence were targeting Mexican farmworkers and farmers in the Southwest. Now, the face of that violence was 🦍 law enforcement and the 😈 Texas Rangers. What they were doing was disenfranchising Mexican American farmers, lynching, committing horrific acts of violence, to keep Mexican farmers landless, to keep them powerless , the same way that federal troops and law enforcement in Arkansas colluded to keep African American farmers powerless and landless, to keep them as a landless proletariat.

And when you begin to kind of put those pieces together, it adds up to a picture of American history, Amy, which most historians are very uncomfortable with. We’re used to thinking of the U.S. as the freest country on Earth. But how do you square that with the Elaine massacre of 1919?

AMY GOODMAN: And for those who haven’t heard the first segment of our show, if you could summarize what happened in 1919?

PAUL ORTIZ: African American farmers, sharecroppers, tenant farmers, landowners were beginning to organize. Many of those African Americans, Amy, who were targeted for violence by white people were actually World War I veterans. They had served in the United States Army. And when they returned to the Arkansas Delta, when they returned to rural Alabama, when they returned to rural Florida and other parts of the South, they expected equal citizenship. They had just made huge sacrifices to help win the Great War for Democracy, as it was known. But when they begin trying to purchase more land, purchase more land for their crops, try to get higher prices for their cotton, whether they’re sharecroppers or landowners, the white power structure in places like Helena, Arkansas, fought back and began to engage in vigilante violence. But, Amy, one of the things I want to point out here is the term “vigilante violence” is probably overused, because the reality is that the courts, judges, sheriffs, police, federal troops were involved in suppressing African Americans, keeping them landless, keeping them powerless. But Black people fought back.

And you mentioned Ida B. Wells-Barnett. She was a great crusader against lynching, you know, years before the Elaine massacre. She wrote an amazing exposé of the Elaine massacre and really gave voice to African Americans who had been brutally tortured, had been driven off their land. Ida B. Wells created an itemized list of the property that African Americans lost as a result of the Elaine massacre, including land, including cotton, including the fact that white people went into Black-owned houses and stole their kitchen, their cutlery, their china, everything they could get their hands on, Amy. And none of those white perpetrators were ever charged with any crime whatsoever. And this really outraged Ida B. Wells. And if you know anything about her, you know that once she got onto a campaign, she continued investigating, but also mobilizing. She went back to Chicago. She went to New York.

And also, this, the Elaine massacre, part of the aftermath was to help the NAACP gain greater credibility, because Walter White did his own investigation. The NAACP helped mobilize people. There was a huge defense fund. So, the Elaine massacre resulted in a national mobilization in support of African Americans who had been put in jail, who had been tortured, who had been convicted of murder, in fact, when they themselves were the targets of violence.

AMY GOODMAN: And you also spoke about this in the first part of our discussion, but now you have time to really flesh it out, the fact that this massacre led to a seminal Supreme Court case. And talk about what was decided. I mean, again, no white people were charged. It was African Americans that were charged in this case?

PAUL ORTIZ: Yes. So, there were five — as best as we can tell, five white individuals were killed during the course of the massacre, which unfolded not just in one day but over several days and even weeks. So, the defendants, the men who were actually incarcerated, charged with murder, these were all African Americans. But much of that testimony, Amy, was coerced. These men were literally electrocuted. They were whipped. They were beaten savagely in order to coerce them into testifying against each other.

This is something that Ida B. Wells highlighted. The fact that Ida B. Wells wrote a report about what she had witnessed, and based on the testimony of these Black defendants, the fact that the NAACP did an investigative report, the fact that the local Black attorney Scipio Jones, who was a Black legal activist for decades, the fact that they publicized this case really embarrassed not just the criminal justice system in Arkansas but the entire nation, because there’s old traditions that go back to the common law which say that you’re not supposed to use testimony which was coerced via torture.

And so, the Moore v. Dempsey case, this goes all the way to the Supreme Court. And what the Supreme Court decides in Moore v. Dempsey is that the trial of the 12 Black defendants was conducted in a lynch mob atmosphere. And in the majority opinion, what the majority of this Supreme Court said was, I mean, look, not a single white person on that jury — and by the way, the jury was all white, and this was part of what the NAACP was arguing was part of the injustice. But the Supreme Court said, basically, not a single member of that jury could have returned anything other than a guilty verdict against those Black defendants, because had any one of those jurors said that any one of those Black defendants was innocent, they would have had to leave the state, literally. And so, the argument in Moore v. Dempsey is that you can’t have a court proceeding in a lynch mob type of atmosphere, because you’re denying the defendants due process, you’re denying them equality under the laws, and those types of things. So, Moore v. Dempsey becomes an important case for the NAACP to build upon, and it becomes a precedent that the organization uses as we move into the Scottsboro Boys case during the Great Depression, and the later civil rights movement.

AMY GOODMAN: Earlier this year, children of the descendants of the 1919 Black massacre in Elaine, Arkansas, gathered memorial soil from where Richard Wright’s uncle, Silas Hoskins, was thought to have been lynched, near Elaine, and they brought it to Montgomery to the National Memorial for Peace and Justice, the national lynching memorial in Montgomery, Alabama, where founder Bryan Stevenson personally received the jar of memorial soil.

BRYAN STEVENSON: We have Silas Hoskins, Elaine, Arkansas, 1916. And this is a significant one because Silas Hoskins was the uncle of Richard Wright, the very famous author, who wrote amazing books. And Richard Wright talked about what happened to his uncle, and that’s how we know his story. And because you have these two jars, we will be able to put them in our exhibit, and I’m really grateful for that. And so, if you will turn that over, I will take it, and we will put this in our museum. And the next time you come, you’ll be able to see the work that you’ve done. All right? Thank you. Thank you, thank you, thank you.

AMY GOODMAN: So, that’s children of the descendants of the Elaine massacre victims, handing jars of soil to the great civil rights leader Bryan Stevenson, which brings us to Julia Wright, the daughter of Richard Wright, the acclaimed writer who lived there in Elaine. Can you talk about this moment, the memorial that is happening now, and what happened then, Julia?

JULIA WRIGHT: It was absolutely — I have no words for what happened. We were watching through Zoom, because the family couldn’t travel. And we watched those 12 children with their hands in the soil. And Dr. Mary Olson, who’s the director of the Elaine Legacy Center, was telling them, “Your hands will be forever on that soil.” And just the idea of those children, who are survivors, bringing the soil, the memorial soil of my own great-uncle, was like the closing of a circle. And it made me think a lot about intergenerational trauma and how it’s handed down, and how it’s prevented from being handed down, by silence. And what struck me, Amy, on Friday, listening in to the symposium and to the descendants speaking, is that they were all breaking that silence. They were speaking their own narratives, and the joy of being able to break silence, to break — you know, that sentence my father has in Black Boy, my mother — the fear my mother had slapped me into silence. She slapped me into silence, she was so afraid. And what happened on Friday in Elaine was a reversal of that. Everybody was breaking through their own silence with their own narratives.

And that is why it’s so appropriate to have Paul Ortiz here today, because Paul Ortiz is an oral historian who gives value to — how can I say? — oral testimony, not written testimony, the oral, the words that we can say when we break through our silence. And I know — I can remember Noelle Hanrahan, the director of Prison Radio in Philadelphia, telling me that everybody in Philadelphia knows how corrupt the police are, but what the criminal justice system doesn’t want is it to get into the written record. It must remain unsaid. It must remain part of the silence. So, our oral testimony is our voyage towards getting it written. And the work of Paul Ortiz and all the oral historians is invaluable.

AMY GOODMAN: Paul, let’s talk about that issue of oral history, who gets documented and who doesn’t, as it relates to Elaine and so much more. It is what you are a master of. You are running an entire program called the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at University of Florida, Gainesville.

PAUL ORTIZ: Well, Amy, one of our — one of the greatest honors that I’ve ever had as an oral historian, of course, is to be able to work with Julia Wright. And in 2019, the Elaine Legacy Center invited the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program and our students and staff to Elaine to help document this history. And what’s so important is, you know, I think, as historians, we — any type of source we can get, we’re going to use. To echo what Julia Wright said, the oral sources are so important because oftentimes the official sources were created by the perpetrators of anti-Black violence. Oftentimes the official sources were created by the perpetrators of anti-Mexican violence.

This is why the work of Ida B. Wells is so important. I would consider her one of the first great oral historians, and maybe the greatest oral historian in this country’s history, Amy, because Ida B. Wells went behind the official sources to talk directly to the families of those who had been lynched. She went to Elaine. She talked directly to the victims of torture, of persecution. And so her narrative is radically different than the narrative of the front page in The New York Times, Amy. Their response to the Elaine massacre initially was that Black people had been involved in a plot to kill all white people. That ran on the front page of The New York Times. So, the work of Ida B. Wells as oral historian is to go behind that story and actually dig to find the truth.

This is what we try to do in the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program today. We’re involved with communities in Elaine and also in communities in Ocoee, Florida, which suffered a horrific anti-Black massacre on Election Day in 1920. We have done work in Rosewood, Florida. We’ve done work in our own county, Alachua County.

AMY GOODMAN: The massacre in Rosewood.

PAUL ORTIZ: Yes, in the massacre in Rosewood. But the thing I think to remember, as Julia knows, the Elaine massacre is horrific, but it’s one of many, scores, perhaps hundreds, of massacres. It happens during Red Summer. And it happens during a time when especially African American farmworkers and farm owners are trying to create new ways of becoming economically viable. They’re going to cooperative purchasing and marketing of their crops. They’re beginning to unionize. And they’re beginning to try to break through the system of white supremacy.

And I think the Elaine Legacy Center has really nailed it when they talk about Elaine as being really one of the key founding places of the civil rights movement, because even though the Elaine massacre ends up in this horrific — these horrific incidents of anti-Black violence and murder, there’s a power that Black people find in collective organizing, and they refuse to allow the victims of the Elaine massacre to be — to go away silent.

AMY GOODMAN: Speaking of hearing the voices that Professor Ortiz is just talking about, I want to go back to Julia Wright. I want to go back to Elaine and Richard Wright, where Richard Wright lived as a child. I want to go to the clip from the Emmy Award-winning film, Richard Wright: Black Boy, the first documentary on Richard’s life, work and legacy.

AMIRI BARAKA: It was Wright who was one of the people who made me conscious of the need to struggle. You understand what I mean? Even though later I come up and say, “Well, man, I don’t agree with that. I don’t agree with that.” Still, in the sense of him describing and analyzing the whole existence of Black people as an oppressed nation, that’s priceless.

RICHARD WRIGHT: I was scared. Scared! All my life, I heard of Black men being killed because of white girls. And there I was.

JOHN HENRIK CLARKE: Richard Wright proved that a Black writer could write considerably better than most of the white writers of his day. And after Native Son, the condescending attitude toward Black writers was over.

MARGARET WALKER ALEXANDER: He said, “Nothing comes before my art.” For him, his art was sacred. He didn’t care about anything else but that. What he had to do was the most important thing.

AMY GOODMAN: The clip from Richard Wright: Black Boy. Julia Wright, if you can talk more about what they are getting at and the power of your father’s work? Of course, you’re the executor of his estate.

JULIA WRIGHT: Well, it stands the test of the murder of George Floyd. It stands the test of the denied justice to Emmett Till for 67 years. His work is more — I don’t know, maybe I can use the word; it’s a bit cheesy, but — prescient than ever. My father did see very far ahead. He paid the price for it.

But I’d like to come back to something absolutely marvelous that I discovered because of what happened Friday in Elaine and seeing all these guests singing and speaking and breaking their silence, that actually Black Boy was born from that very breaking of a silence. In 1943, my father had traveled down South with Horace Cayton, who was a psychoanalyst — a sociologist interested in psychoanalysis. And they had gone to Fisk, where my father was invited to speak. But they were in the train, and on the train down South they experienced a racial incident. They were segregated behind a curtain. And my father, as usual, was very angry. And he arrived in Fisk without any notes written. He hadn’t written his lecture because he was so upset. And he advanced towards the lectern without anything prepared in advance. And he broke the silence of his mind, and he poured out his emotions, the emotions born on that train. And when the lecture ended, the whole room was so silent, you could hear a pin drop. And people started — it was a biracial audience. People started clutching their pocketbooks and leaving with their heads low. And one professor came up to him and said, “Wow, you’ve told the truth. Everybody’s leaving because you’ve told the truth.” And that’s when my father realized that he was going to write Black Boy.

AMY GOODMAN: Julia, I wanted to ask about — well, we’re speaking to you in Portugal now. We’ve spoken to you when you — you know, when you’re in Paris, France. Your father moved to France. If you can talk about how what has happened in the United States — I mean, you’re an American, but you live outside of the country, you come in occasionally — how it led you to live in Europe?

JULIA WRIGHT: Well, first of all, my father chose self-expatriation, and the whole family followed. We have remained loyal to that choice.

However, Amy, this lynching goes on everywhere in the world, because we are everywhere. We are a diaspora everywhere. And to go full circle back to the lynching memorial museum, I’ve been speaking with sisters and brothers in Europe about a need, perhaps, for their own lynching museum there. And I’ll only mention one case in Brussels, about a — they call him the Belgian George Floyd. He was choked in very much the same manner. And his family, who are very poor — he’s an African. His family, very poor, decided to question his manner of death. And much pressure was put on the state to dissuade them from questioning the murder, but the father persisted. And so, the body had to be put in the morgue. And during the time of the trial, the body stayed in the morgue, because that’s the law. And it is the family who had to pay 25 euros a day to the morgue, to the state, because they had dared question the manner of murder.

So, it’s everywhere, Amy. And just as Paul Ortiz was saying that perhaps survivors of massacres throughout the country should unite and exchange experiences, and even have massacre reunions — there’s a whole hidden map of massacres, we could link up — in the same way, there are lynchings throughout the world we must pay attention to.

AMY GOODMAN: And before we end, if you could talk more about the Elaine Museum in Arkansas that held the memorial 103 years after the Elaine massacre, and the Richard Wright Civil Rights Center, that is planning to be built in Elaine?

JULIA WRIGHT: I have not been there. It’s a wrench, Amy, but I — because of my age and COVID, I was unable to travel. It’s a work in progress. I am so proud. They invited me in Elaine to be a member of the Elaine Legacy Center, so I’m now a member. And it’s very exciting. We’re going to plan what the first initiative of the Richard Wright Civil Rights Center is going to be.

AMY GOODMAN: And —

JULIA WRIGHT: Maybe some — yeah?

AMY GOODMAN: And —

JULIA WRIGHT: Maybe something — yes?

AMY GOODMAN: Go ahead.

JULIA WRIGHT: Maybe mass incarceration.

AMY GOODMAN: And finally, the case of Mumia Abu-Jamal has been very close to your heart for many, many years. Can you talk about what’s upcoming in his case?

JULIA WRIGHT: A very important date, Amy: 19th of October is the date where he will appear in court in Philadelphia, where we hope to have a maximum of mobilization around the court, because, at last, after 36 years, the hidden boxes, where proof of his innocence were hidden in the prosecutor’s office storage room, will be submitted by the defense in front of a judge in the appeals court. They gathered dust for 36 years. In one of the boxes, there is a letter written by one of the witnesses, asking the prosecutor, “Where is my money?” There is further proof that the jury was tampered with, so that it would be all the Blacks would be stricken off. And other proof of corruption is contained in those boxes. But time is ticking. The proof was hidden. And Mumia’s health is deteriorating.

AMY GOODMAN: Well, Julia Wright, I want to thank you so much for being with us, daughter of the literary giant Richard Wright, and she herself a writer, a poet in her own right. I want to thank you for being with us, today joining us from Portugal.

JULIA WRIGHT: Thank you.

AMY GOODMAN: And I want to thank Paul Ortiz, professor of history, director of the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at University of Florida, joining us from Raleigh, North Carolina, where he’s giving a Hispanic heritage speech at Duke University. Professor Ortiz is author of the book An African American and Latinx History of the United States. To see Part 1 of our discussion, you can go to democracynow.org. I’m Amy Goodman. Thanks so much for joining us.

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So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12

AGelbert

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"We must recognize that we can't solve our problem now until there is a radical redistribution of economic and political power... this means a revolution of values and other things.” — Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. 🕊️

January 17, 2023

Martin Luther King Jr.’s 🕊️ true radical ideology was his dissatisfaction with the status quo

SNIPPET:

Every day, our communities grapple with the consequences of life-altering experiences like racial discrimination, corporate-backed housing insecurity, and increased cost of living regardless of zip code or income. We must reflect on Dr. King's life and work, while also waiving a 🚩 warning flag for politicians that often pay lip service to his ideals, while doing their 😈 best to keep his dream 🕊️ of equality and liberation unrealized.

Read more: 🕊️
https://medium.com/@popdemoc/martin-luther-king-jr-s-true-radical-ideology-was-his-dissatisfaction-with-the-status-quo-7b4015076fd4
So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets. Matthew 7:12